Music of the classical period

The German flutist Johann Joachim Quantz presents the concept of a musical director, a future conductor, homepage for the first time in his 1752 dissertation “The Experience of Teaching Playing the Transverse Flute.” The chapters “The qualifications of a conductor in the music sector” and some others are devoted to it while performing in open performances.” But the books on the conducting profession, authored by Berlioz and Wagner, will be published nearly a 100 years before Hermann Scherchen transforms conduct into a “exact science.” (Scherchen’s studies emerge in the late 1920s and 1930s).

In general, a group of musicians was led by a clapboardist, rolling notes or with a hand, or the composer themselves with a trampolin – the unique stick used to beat the rhythm. This does not mean that the collective performance was at all centralized at that point. At the start of the 19th century, the baton of the driver, familiar to us, appears in Vienna, and by the middle of the 19th century when he turns his back on the audience, the driver changes from a “beat-breaker” into a “maker.”

For a hundred and one-half years, Italian opera (see here) has indeed become a “concert of costumes” – a succession of numbers almost unconnected with one storyline. In collaboration with librettist Kalzabigi, Viennese composer Christoph Willibald Gluck is turning once more to old theater. He used for the first time a cross-sectional dramatic development in the Orpheus and Eurydice operas, in which he was aided by the triumphs of his orchestral music, namely by the development of the symphony. Not only recitals, but vocal scenarios also began to develop. A complete orchestra heard in the recitations themselves (previously there was only a bass line). And because of the decrease in a great number of solos, the opera itself has become considerably shorter. Orpheus himself, held in Wien and, like the following operas, did not succeed in the same principle, but in Paris, with a new librettist du Roulet Glück, he not only achieved the European fame but also acquires students and followers – Salieri, Spontini and Cherubini. Their work was not just a success but an acquired name in Greek mythology (“Alcesta,” “Paris and Helena”).

Not many composers shared Gluk’s ideals yet the opera house began to flourish in all nations, with the exception of Italy, until Wagner reshaped the opera.

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